Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into numerous different cell types and serve as the body’s primary internal repair system. The innate ability of stem cells to differentiate into other types of cells with specialized functions (blood, brain or tissue/cells) replenishes and regenerates the body from the effects of aging and disease. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT) has been shown to significantly increase the concentration of circulating stem/progenitor cells within the peripheral circulation system. By increasing blood plasma oxygen levels, bone marrow derived stem cells were shown to significantly proliferate and mobilize. The proposed mechanism of action was through nitric oxide dependent mechanism. This evidence plays a key role in regenerative medicine as the increased number of stem cells in the body have the ability to provide enhanced and accelerated physiological repair.